DC-2011 Proceedings Abstracts

Paper Abstracts

Paper Author Paper Title & Abstract
Jörg Brunsmann TITLE: Product Lifecycle Metadata Harmonization with the Future in OAIS Archives
ABSTRACT: Metadata plays a crucial role to maintain the traceability and understandability of large product data collections generated throughout all product lifecycle phases. Therefore, product data models are annotated with metadata which represents meaning that conforms to evolving metadata schemas. Due to business, contractual and legal reasons, these semantically enriched product data models are ingested into OAIS (Open Archival Information System) based archives for later reuse. Remarkably, it is not uncommon that products are in operation for several decades while engineers and their embodied knowledge retire or leave the company. This product longevity, volatile knowledge and rapid technology innovations require special preservation processes to keep the archived product data and metadata interpretable. While preservation of product data is concerned with product data model normalization, validation and file format migration, the preservation processes of metadata are of different nature since global metadata schemas can evolve independently in a non backward compatible fashion. Although widely referenced, the OAIS reference model unfortunately does not observe metadata schema versioning and metadata harmonization in deep detail. Therefore, this paper aims to introduce dedicated metadata preservation functionality into OAIS archives based on operational schema update processing.
Benjamin Zapilko & Brigitte Mathiak TITLE: Performing Statistical Methods on Linked Data
ABSTRACT: In recent years, many government agencies have published statistical information as linked open data (i.e. Eurostat, data.gov.uk). Yet, while there are a number of visualization tools, researchers need to make scientific statistical analysis to answer their research questions. Currently, they have to download the statistical data in a table-based format, in order to use their statistics software, unfortunately losing all the benefits linked data provides to them like interlinking with other datasets. In this paper, we present an approach specifically designed to help researchers to perform statistical analysis on linked open data. By combining distributed sources with SPARQL, we are able to apply simple statistical calculations, such as linear regression and present the results to the user. Results of testing these calculations with heterogeneous data sources expose a wide range of typical issues on data integration which have to be aware of when working with heterogeneous statistical data.
Nuno Freire, José Borbinha & Pável Calado TITLE: A Language Independent Approach for Aligning Subject Heading Systems with Geographic Ontologies
ABSTRACT: Subject headings systems are tools for organization of knowledge that have been developed over the years by libraries. The SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System provides a practical way to represent subject headings systems, and several libraries have taken the initiative to make these systems widely available as open linked data. Each individual subject heading describes a concept, however, in the majority of cases, one subject heading is actually a combination of several concepts, such as a topic bounded in geographical and temporal scopes. In these cases, the label of the concept actually contains several concepts which are not represented in structured form. This paper address the alignment of the geographic concepts described in subject headings systems with their correspondence in geographic ontologies. Our approach, first recognizes the place names in the subject headings using entity recognition techniques, and follows with the resolution of the place names in a target geographic ontology. The system is based on machine learning and was designed to be language independent so that it can be applied to the many existing subject headings systems. Our approach was evaluated on a subset of the Library of Congress Subject Headings, achieving an F1 score of 93%.
Baek Jaeeun & Shigeo Sugimoto TITLE: Facet Analysis of Archival Metadata Standards to Support Appropriate Selection, Combination and Use of Metadata Schemas
ABSTRACT: There are several archival metadata standards, e.g. EAD, PREMIS, and ISAD(G). This brings up us interoperability issues in design and use of the metadata standards. It is important for us to know the features of these standards to appropriately create application profiles. Resource lifecycle is an essential aspect for archival tasks. This paper shows a feature analysis of these standards by identifying primary lifecycle stage(s) of an archival metadata standard, which is defined as a stage where significantly large portion of descriptive elements of the schema is given their values. Based on this feature analysis, this paper proposes a framework to help selection, combination and use of metadata schemas for digital archiving and preservation. We propose to use 5W1H (What, Why, Where, Who, When and How) coupled with a Task model which is derived from the resource lifecycle in order to clarify tasks and resources instead of lifecycle stages. The 5W1H attributes and tasks help us identify contexts of descriptive elements and define crosswalks among the standards. This paper shows the feature analysis of the metadata schemas, and then discusses the framework using examples of the mapping.
Kai Eckert, Daniel Garijo, Michael Panzer & Ömer Perçin TITLE: Extending DCAM for Metadata Provenance
ABSTRACT: The Metadata Provenance Task Group aims to define a data model that allows for making assertions about description sets. Creating a shared model of the data elements required to describe an aggregation of metadata statements allows to collectively import, access, use and publish facts about the quality, rights, timeliness, data source type, trust situation, etc. of the described statements. In this paper we describe the preliminary model created by the task group, together with first examples that demonstrate how the model is to be used.
Elena Montiel-Ponsoda, Daniel Vila-Suero, Boris Villazón-Terrazas, Gordon Dunsire, Elena Escolano & Asunción Gómez-Pérez TITLE: Style Guidelines for Naming and Labeling Ontologies in the Multilingual Web
ABSTRACT: In the context of the Semantic Web, natural language descriptions associated to ontologies have proven to be of major importance not only to support ontology developers and adopters, but also to assist in tasks such as ontology mapping, information extraction, or natural language generation. In the state-of-the-art we find some attempts to provide guidelines for URI local names in English, and also some disagreement on the use of URIs as labels for describing ontology elements. When trying to extrapolate these ideas to a multilingual scenario, some of these approaches fail to provide a valid solution. On the basis of some real experiences in the translation of ontologies, we provide a preliminary set of guidelines for naming and labeling ontologies in the Multilingual Web.
Oksana Zavalina TITLE: Free-text Collection-Level Subject Metadata in Large-Scale Digital Libraries: A Comparative Content Analysis
ABSTRACT: Metadata is central for information organization in digital libraries. A growing number of digital libraries worldwide are now generating metadata to describe not only individual objects but entire digital collections as integral wholes. However, collection-level metadata has not yet been empirically evaluated. This paper reports results of the study that used an in-depth comparative content analysis to assess free-text collection-level subject metadata in three large-scale digital cultural heritage aggregations in the United States and Europe. As observed by this study, the emerging best practices include encoding a variety of information about a digital collection in free-text collection-level Description metadata element. This includes both subject-specific (topical, geographic and temporal coverage, and types/genres of objects in a digital collection) and non-subject-specific information: title, size, provenance, collection development, copyright, audience, navigation and functionality, language of items in a digital collection, frequency of additions, institutions that host a digital collection or contribute to it, funding sources, item creators, importance, uniqueness, and comprehensiveness of a digital collection.
Gordon Dunsire, Diane Ileana Hillmann, Jon Phipps & Karen Coyle TITLE: A Reconsideration of Mapping in a Semantic World
ABSTRACT: For much of the past decade, attempts to corral the explosion of new metadata schemas (or formats) have been notably unsuccessful. Concerns about interoperability in this diverse and rapidly changing environment continue, with strategies based on syntactic crosswalks becoming more sophisticated even as the ground beneath library data shifts further towards the Semantic Web. This paper will review the state of the art of traditional crosswalking strategies, examine lessons learned, and suggest how some changes in approach--from record-based to statement-based, and from syntax-based to semantic-based--can make a significant difference in the outcome.
Bernhard Haslhofer & Antoine Isaac TITLE: data.europeana.eu—The Europeana Linked Open Data Pilot
ABSTRACT: data.europeana.eu is an ongoing effort of making Europeana metadata available as Linked Open Data on the Web. It allows others to access metadata collected from Europeana data providers via standard Web technologies. The data are represented in the Europeana Data Model (EDM) and the described resources are addressable and dereferencable by their URIs. Links between Europeana resources and other resources in the Linked Data Web will enable the discovery of semantically related resources. We developed an approach that allows Europeana data providers to opt for their data to become Linked Data and converts their metadata to the Europeana Data Model (EDM), benefiting from Europeana efforts to link them to semantically related resources on the Web. With that approach, we produced a first Linked Data version of Europeana and published the resulting datasets on the Web. We also gained experiences with respect to EDM, HTTP URI design, and RDF store performance and report them in this paper.
Soualah Mohammed Ourabah & Mohamed Hassoun TITLE: Which Metadata for Ancient Arabic Manuscripts Cataloguing?
ABSTRACT: Three millions of ancient Arabic manuscripts are jealously preserved in libraries, in conservation institutions and in private homes. A non-consulted document is like a death document. The Arabic manuscript existence is related to its consultation degree by the users. The access to this kind of document is very difficult because of two principle reasons: The first is about the fragile nature of the manuscripts which make them degradable easily, what limits their manual use. The second is about the dispersion of the manuscripts at different far countries in the world, what make traveling difficult. Thus, the digitization and the online of the ancient Arabic manuscripts are a sought solution that will resolve the problem of access to the original manuscripts. But, once again, the question is how to access the digitized images of the manuscripts? Despite of difficulties of the images interpretation, the use of the cataloguing is an imperative solution. Our paper treats the Arabic manuscript cataloguing problems. It reviews the various aspects of the Arabic manuscripts cataloguing metadata. We propose a new cataloguing model and we open parenthesis of an eventual interoperability project between catalogs encoded with different formats.
Johannes Keizer, Ahsan Morshed, Caterina Caracciolo & Gudrun Johannsen TITLE: Thesaurus Alignment for Linked Data publishing
ABSTRACT: Recently, the Linked Data (LD) way of publishing data is imposing as the way data is to be made available over the web, in line with a Semantic Web vision where data can be accessed by humans and machines the like. For publishing data as LD, one needs dereferenceable URIs, a standard language (mostly RDF(S)) and links between pieces of data. In this paper we present our work on mapping AGROVOC to six other well-known thesauri, all already available as RDF(S) resources (using the SKOS vocabulary to express thesauri in RDF(S)). Given the limitations of existing matching systems, we used the best known matching algorithms discussed in the literature and combined them to get one single number, corresponding to the average similarity value computed between concepts. From this work, we conclude that we achieved our goal to endow the Linked Data version of AGROVOC with reliable links to other thesauri, following a procedure that is fully replicable.

Project Report Abstracts

Project Report Author Project Report Title & Abstract
Kevin Clair TITLE: Metadata for a Micro-services-based Digital Curation System
ABSTRACT: The Libraries and Information Technology Services at the Pennsylvania State University are in the process of developing a service architecture for supporting digital curation and preservation activity at the university. This system, called the Open Curation and Archival Services Architecture (OpenCASA), is built on the micro-services approach to digital curation pioneered by the California Digital Library. The project report details methods and philosophies related to metadata development for this system, and how those methods align with the general approach of the micro-services model. The current state of production of this architecture is detailed, along with future metadata services to be embedded in the system, and how those services will be deployed in collaboration with OpenCASA stakeholders.
Biligsaikhan Batjargal, Fuminori Kimura & Akira Maeda TITLE: Metadata-related Challenges for Realizing Federated Searching System for Japanese Humanities Databases
ABSTRACT: This project report provides a summary of our ongoing project for providing integrated access to Japanese multiple digital libraries, archives, and museums. The main goal to construct a federated searching system for Japanese humanities databases, which searches multiple databases in parallel and provides on-the-fly integration of the results, has required the system to deal with heterogeneous metadata schemas in various formats. In this project report we discuss the metadata-related challenges facing at the front-end for retrieving multiple Japanese databases in parallel and integrating bilingual retrieved results. Aggregation and integration of the retrieved results in English and Japanese are complicated if a search needs to be performed from multilingual sources.
Timothy W. Cole, Myung-Ja K. Han, Doug Moncur & Harriett E. Green TITLE: Describing Collections & Collection Services for the BTP
ABSTRACT: As libraries acquire and generate more digital content, the need to agree on a standard method for describing digital collections becomes increasingly evident. Shared rules for collection description not only facilitate discovery; they also can facilitate the reuse of collections and collection items. Past work has focused largely on standards and practices that facilitate collection discovery and provide human-readable descriptions of collections. With the advent of projects such as the Australian National Data Service (ANDS) and now the Bamboo Technology Project (BTP), there is a need to consider computer-mediated collection interoperability and computer-agent collection use as well. This requires more attention in collection descriptions to machine-actionable descriptions of collection-level services and suggests benefits possible through greater reliance on Semantic Web technologies such as RDF. Experience from earlier projects also indicates that content-providers on their own typically do not produce collection-level descriptions that are adequate for some functions that aggregators want to deploy. This suggests that authoring of collection-level descriptions should be a collaborative enterprise. In the context of the BTP, this discusses the current practice of creating and using collection-level descriptions and introduces new developments and emerging approaches supporting collection content interoperability at a more robust level.
Mitsuharu Nagamori, Shigeo Sugimoto, Masahide Kanzaki & Naohisa Torigoshi TITLE: Meta-Bridge: A Development of Metadata Information Infrastructure in Japan
ABSTRACT: This report is aimed to present the metadata information infrastructure project funded by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication, Japan. This project is planned to build a metadata schema registry as an infrastructure to help sharing of metadata schemas on the Internet and promote reuse of metadata schemas and metadata interoperability. The registry is designed based on the Singapore Framework. Partners of this project include several major memory organizations, research institutions, and private sectors in Japan. This project has collected several metadata schemas from the partners and converted them into the formal scheme of the project defined based on RDF. This report first presents the background and goal of the project, and then presents the requirements and design of the registry system named Meta-Bridge.
David Kuilman & Martin Ruck TITLE: Satellites, the Elsevier format for Ancillary Information to Scientific Journals and Books
ABSTRACT: Elsevier presents the Satellite format; a linked data compliant data format to capture, store and expose metadata objects using open standards based metadata frameworks e.g. SKOS, DCMI and SWAN. The satellite format allows for an array of configurable features to be defined on a per-project basis to specify the metadata object and its required business usage. A key use case presented in detail is the modeling of tagging information sourced by text mining and content enhancement suppliers to persist scientific document annotation expressed in RDF, linking text strings within the document to concept URIs in scientific – vocabularies.
Myung-Ja K. Han, Melanie Wacker & Judith Dartt TITLE: Resource Description and Access (RDA) as a Content Standard for the Dublin Core
ABSTRACT: Resource Description and Access (RDA) was developed as a content standard for use with all types of metadata standards. Columbia University, the University of Chicago, and the University of Illinois evaluated this new standard with the Dublin Core elements set during the U.S. National Libraries RDATest held from October to December 2010. This project report looks at the issues which emerged during the test and what each of the three institutions did to address them. The also includes a description of the test set-ups employed, the tools used, and the problems encountered, such as the difficulty of describing the relationships between entities in Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) with Dublin Core elements.
Madelyn Washington, Mark Notess & Jon W. Dunn TITLE: Taking Music Metadata from MARC to FRBR to RDF
ABSTRACT: The Variations/FRBR project aims to contribute to a community understanding of what it means to implement FRBR. Serving as a concrete test-bed for the FRBR conceptual model, a goal of the V/FRBR project is to provide the community with FRBR-compliant data formats and encodings promoting interoperability and exchange of FRBR data between systems and institutions. The first outcome of this goal was a FRBR-compliant XML format developed and released by the project team. Encouraged by recent efforts towards creating library legacy metadata which are Semantic Web-compliant, the V/FRBR project has recently completed an RDF binding of the V/FRBR data model that will serve to further formal interoperability among all FRBR-based Application Profiles. This article discusses the steps taken towards creating a Semantic Web-compliant, interoperable data model that implements the FRBR conceptual model and can be used in both a generic and a music-specific environment.
François Revol TITLE: Universal File System Extended Attributes Namespace
ABSTRACT: The growing usage of file system extended attributes on many operating systems faces interoperability problems when trying to preserve them across multiple platforms. We propose a generic namespace design and mapping method to maintain an identical view of the global meta-data namespace by each operating system. Additionally, we try to address the API and semantic incompatibilities with a higher level framework.
Cristina Pattuelli, Chris Weller & Genevieve Szablya TITLE: Linked Jazz: An Exploratory Prototype
ABSTRACT: This project report reports on the initial phase of an ongoing project investigating the application of Linked Open Data (LOD) technology to enhance discovery and visibility of digital cultural heritage materials. The project explores the applicability of Friend-Of-A-Friend (FOAF) to digital archives of jazz history to expose relationships between musicians and reveal their community’s network. New modes of connecting cultural data and making them searchable as a whole in a seamless discovery environment would open unprecedented opportunities to create new kinds of meaning and elicit new streams of interpretation. The goal of this project is to help uncover meaningful connections between documents and data related to the personal and professional lives of musicians who often practice in rich and diverse social networks. This project report reports on the methods involved and the challenges encountered in the first phase of the project.

Poster Abstracts

Poster Author Poster Title & Abstract
Nick Steffel TITLE: Better, Faster, Stronger: Building a Better Dublin Core Generator
ABSTRACT: A number of online tools exist for the generation of Dublin Core code from user input, however various issues with their design and implementation limit their overall utility. Key issues identified were a lack of support for XML output, the use of non-standard elements and encoding schemes, lack of support for repeating elements as needed, and insufficient linking to online documentation for Dublin Core and the various encoding schemes supported by it. A new tool developed in response to these perceived weaknesses is discussed, largely focusing on the features included to address the previously noted concerns but with a brief overview of the tool's technological design as well. Areas for further development are also highlighted.
Haiyan Bai, Xiaodong Qiao & Bing Liang TITLE: Semantic Bibliography based on Ontology and Linked Data
ABSTRACT: The project of Semantic Bibliography Based on Ontology and Linked Data arises from the needs of bibliography organization and integration of National Science and Technology Library (NSTL) of China. The goal is to build a mechanism to identify, describe and organize the characters and relationships of all kinds of bibliography objects and provide linked data web for end users to access and browse expediently the bibliography objects and their relationships, such as the characters of multiplicity of information forms, variability in information life and complexity of hybrid digital object by following the linked web. We apply semantic technology of ontology and linked data into bibliography organization, including constructing NSTL bibliography ontology, transfering organization pattern and publishing linked data. The demo semantic OPAC supports dynamic facet query, semantic relationship query and complex relationship query.
Mark Notess, Jon W. Dunn & Juliet L. Hardesty TITLE: Scherzo: A FRBR-Based Music Discovery System
ABSTRACT: The Scherzo music discovery system is one deliverable from the Variations/FRBR project at Indiana University. Scherzo provides discovery for a FRBRized database of 190,000 music scores and recordings, the database having been created automatically from bibliographic records extracted from the IU libraries MARC-based catalog. Scherzo offers faceted search using such categories as instrumentation and creator/composer. It facilitates exploration of FRBR relationships of particular interest in music, such as composer, conductor, and performer. Most notably, Scherzo provides a list of matched works on the results page in addition to listing matched manifestations. Two evaluations of Scherzo have been completed, one analytic and the other a usability test with 12 students as participants. For both evaluations, Scherzo was compared to the IU production OPAC, IUCAT. Students were enthusiastic about Scherzo. The evaluations indicate that the role distinctions are helpful but that works list in the search results proved initially difficult to understand. The faceted FRBR relationships could be expressed differently in the search results and offered earlier in the interface to aid discovery.
Imma Subirats, Marcia Zeng & Johannes Keizer TITLE: Metadata Approaches for Shareable and LOD-enabled Bibliographic Data from Open Repositories
ABSTRACT: This poster presents the processes and paths of the authors who have recently prepared a report on descriptive metadata encoding recommendations for an European project, VOA3R (Virtual Open Access in Agriculture and Aquaculture Repository), which aims to deploy a virtual entry-point for exchanging and augmenting open bibliographic data, and thus improve the dissemination of research results in agriculture and aquaculture via open access. Specifically, our task was to prepare a report with a suggested title of "Recommendations for the Content Population of the VOA3R Service Provider". Since the VOA3R Federation consists of 17 institutions from 13 countries contributing bibliographic data to eight open repositories, the immediate need was for the analysis of the number and characteristics of the open access documents that will be accessible from VOA3R. Following this task, the next step was to propose encoding recommendations for the exchange of metadata between data providers and the VOA3R platform. Along with the wave of the Linked Open Data movement, the VOA3R project required that the recommendations should also be suitable for encoding with consideration to Linked Open Data
Dennis Spohr & Philipp Cimiano TITLE: Integrating Ontology-based Metadata Enrichment into a CMS-based Research Infrastructure
ABSTRACTS: This abstract reports on ongoing activities aimed at the development of an ecosystem of entities connected to a research institution, such as its researchers and the resources produced. In particular, we are investigating ways of being able to enter metadata descriptions in a uniform way on the one hand, and to expose them in various different formats on the other. In particular, we aim at supporting current standards for metadata exchange, such as the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), as well as the Resource Description Framework (RDF) in order to be able to interlink the descriptions with others available on the Linking Open Data (LOD) cloud. For the whole process to integrate smoothly into the existing research infrastructure, our approach relies on the Open Source Content Management System Drupal, as it is at the center of the current infrastructure for managing metadata. As will be discussed in the following, Drupal provides a number of freely available modules supporting the aforementioned tasks and, moreover, offers the possibility to further extend these modules.
Emad Khazraee TITLE: Domain Specific Considerations of Metadata for Cultural Heritage
ABSTRACT: This poster will present that at least two major approaches to cultural heritage are identifiable based on domain analysis method. Each of these approaches has their consequences in documentation of cultural heritage. The objective approach is still dominant in the documentation of heritage and is modernist, restrictive and exclusive in nature, whereas the interpretive approach is less restrictive and more subjective in nature. Thus, to address the requirements of the documentation of cultural heritage in today's settings, we should consider the consequences of the new approaches to cultural heritage. The new approaches to cultural heritage encourage us to review the considerations of metadata for cultural heritage and add a number of considerations of metadata for cultural heritage to our agenda.
Kai Eckert, Daniel Garijo, Michael Panzer & Ömer Perçin TITLE: Metadata Provenance: Dublin Core on the Next Level
ABSTRACT: With this poster, we present the current state of the DCMI Metadata Provenance Task Group, which will wrap up its work at the time of DC-2011. The motivation for a Dublin Core extension for metadata provenance is twofold: Firstly, we want to represent existing metadata provenance information in a simple and unified way that is well suited as an application of Dublin Core. Secondly, we want to enable the provision of provenance information for Dublin Core metadata in a Dublin Core compatible way. Thus, the main objective of the Dublin Core Metadata Provenance Task Group is to provide the means and guidelines to model and handle metadata provenance. The approach followed for this task has been to create a model as simple as possible, providing real world examples and mappings to other provenance approaches and comparing the complexity of the outcomes.
João Sequeira, João Edmundo, Hugo Manguinhas, Gilberto Pedrosa & José Borbinha TITLE: Profiling Transformations in Heterogeneous and Large Scale Metadata Harvesting Processes
ABSTRACT: In the data transformation process we have two fundamental issues: interpretation of the source and destination schemas and the definition of the mapping relating them. The definition of these mapping can also be called schema matching. While performed by humans, the matching process requires a huge intellectual effort to know the data to produce well suported matchings. The main goal of this project is to improve the data transformation process through the definition of measures to provide information about the data, thus reducing the effort spent by the human that performs the matching.
Matthew Miller & Chris Mullin TITLE: Towards Contextually Descriptive Embedded Metadata
ABSTRACT: Recent strides have been made in establishing standards for embedded metadata. These guidelines mostly examine the administrative and technical facets of digital media. Contextually descriptive embedded metadata is often mentioned only in passing. This is likely due to the different nature of the two types of data. Administrative embedded data is useful as a workflow aid, establishing ownership of a file or source of the material. While contextually descriptive embedded metadata is information such as the title of a painting, or name of an artist. The former is useful to professionals working with the materials, while the latter is beneficial to the end user. The huge potential audience that would benefit from contextually descriptive metadata is what makes it a compelling and powerful tool. The purpose of our project is to advance the use of descriptive embedded metadata through raising awareness (http://www.EmbedMyData.com) and implementing embedded functionally in open source systems.
Ricardo Eito-Brun TITLE: Metadata Aggregation in Historical Engineering Archives: building an Integrated Metadata Registry
ABSTRACT: This poster describes a prototype project completed by a research team of the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid to build an integrated metadata registry (IMR) for historical engineering archives. The proposed solution offers a way to collect and aggregate metadata from a network of archives that hold historical fonds of civil engineering documents. To enable metadata agregation and ensure metadata compatibility, the archives participating in the network are requested to share authority records enconded on the definitive version of EAC-CPF and descriptors from a set of thesauri. The developed prototype makes use of automated remote calls through HTTP to collect metadata assignments (these are a subset of the EAD and EAC-CPF records created by the different archives, encoded in RDF) and then process them to build an XML Topic Map (XTM). The registry itself consist in an XTM file that is later processed to extract and build the different pages that the end-users and researches use to navigate the registry and discover the data and information spread through the different fonds and collections.

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